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Friday, July 17, 2020 | History

2 edition of Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities found in the catalog.

Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities

Gregory K. Ingram

Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities

by Gregory K. Ingram

  • 110 Want to read
  • 16 Currently reading

Published by World Bank, Research Advisory Staff, Transport, Water, and Urban Development Dept. in Washington, DC .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Transportation.,
  • Transportation, Automotive.,
  • Commercial vehicles.,
  • Roads -- Economic aspects.,
  • Rural roads -- Economic aspects.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementGregory K. Ingram, Zhi Liu.
    SeriesPolicy research working paper ;, 1842., Policy research working papers ;, 1842.
    ContributionsLiu, Zhi, 1961-, World Bank. Research Advisory Staff., World Bank. Transportation, Water & Urban Development Dept.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsHG3881.5.W57 P63 no. 1842
    The Physical Object
    Pagination38 p. :
    Number of Pages38
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL404783M
    LC Control Number98104789

      If history repeats itself, an additional billion cars will be added by , mostly in developing countries, given expected economic growth and past patterns of motorization. For instance, in the six largest cities in India, the population doubled between and , but the number of motor vehicles increased eight times over the same. A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for definitions of cars say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, and mainly transport people rather than goods.. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German.

      Introduction. Motorization has enhanced the lives of many individuals and societies, but the benefits have come with a price. Although the number of lives lost in road accidents in high-income countries indicate a downward trend in recent decades, for most of the world's population, the burden of road-traffic injury—in terms of societal and economic costs—is rising substantially.[]. It acknowledged that RTIs were a leading cause of death in low-income countries and accorded governmental ‘regulation to preserve safety standards in infrastructure service provision and delivery’ an important priority. 74 Another paragraph observed the ‘very low rates of traffic accidents’ which the Brazilian city of Curitiba had.

    Roads and highways - Roads and highways - The modern road: Since the beginning of the 20th century, as the automobile and truck have offered ever higher levels of mobility, vehicle ownership per head of population has increased. Road needs have been strongly influenced by this popularity and also by the mass movement of people to cities and thence to suburban fringes—a trend that has led to. Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC) Urban infrastructure is one of the key elements in the struggle for making cities more sustainable and ensuring the environmental security of the population. , Motorization and Road Provision in Countries and Cities, World Bank. Google.


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Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities by Gregory K. Ingram Download PDF EPUB FB2

Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities. Washington, DC: World Bank, Research Advisory Staff and Transport, Water, and Urban Development Department, [] (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, International government publication, Internet resource: Document Type: Book, Internet Resource.

Home > Policy Research Working Papers > Motorization and the Provision of Roads in Countries and Cities. Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities. Washington, DC: World Bank, Research Advisory Staff and Transport, Water, and Urban Development Department, [] (DLC) (OCoLC) Material Type: Document, Government publication, International government publication, Internet resource: Document Type.

Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities (English) Abstract. Using panel data from 50 countries and 35 urban areas (covering a wide range of country incomes), the authors summarize trends in motorization and the provision of roads, and they examine the ratio of motor vehicles to roads in a production function framework.

Using panel data from 50 countries and 35 urban areas (covering a wide range of country incomes), the authors summarize trends in motorization and the provision of roads, and they examine the.

Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities (英语) 摘要. Using panel data from 50 countries and 35 urban areas (covering a wide range of country incomes), the authors summarize trends in motorization and the provision of roads, and they examine the ratio of motor vehicles to roads in a production function framework.

Downloadable. Using panel data from 50 countries and 35 urban areas (covering a wide range of country incomes), the authors summarize trends in motorization and the provision of roads, and they examine the ratio of motor vehicles to roads in a production function framework at both national andurban levels.

They find regularities very strong across countries and urban areas and over time. Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities (الانكليزية) البنك الدولي.

الصفحة الرئيسية • خريطة الموقع•. Motorization and the Provision of Roads in Countries and Cities Gregory K. Ingram Zhi Liu* * The authors are grateful to Chiaki Yamamoto for research assistance, and to Esra Bennathan, Kenneth Button, Marianne Fay, Tony Gomez-Ibaniez, Reuben Gronau, Kenneth Gwilliam, and Lant Pritchett for helpful comments on the earlier draft.

Determinants of Motorization and Road Provision. observable open-source data from different urban areas around the world. Around cities which are distributed over 55 countries are examined. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Using panel data from 50 countries and 35 urban areas (both covering a wide range of country incomes), this paper summarizes trends in motorization, road provision, and road transport service production (combining vehicles and roads).

The growth of both motorization and road provision is related to incomes, land area. Abstract. Using panel data from 50 countries and 35 urban areas (covering a wide range of country incomes), the authors summarize trends in motorization and the provision of roads, and they examine the ratio of motor vehicles to roads in a production function framework at both national andurban levels.

Most countries invest about 1 percent of na- tional income in roads per year (World Bank, ). Road length per capita in large Chinese cities is similar to that ob- served in large cities in other developing countries.

For example, Shanghaiâ s road length of m per person in was similar to that of Bangkok, Jakarta, and Manila. Ingram, Gregory K. & Zhi Liu, "Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities," Policy Research Working Paper SeriesThe World Bank.

Hau, Timothy D., "Congestion charging mechanisms for roads: an evaluation of current practice," Policy Research Working Paper SeriesThe World Bank. William C. Wheaton, However, provision of road infrastructure in Asian megacities is far inadequate to satisfactorily serve the motorized traffic.

As for the road investment, policymakers face the binding constraint of funding. There is also a risk of promoting motorization because of road expansion as is often pointed by road skeptics.

DETERMINANTS OF MOTORIZATION AND ROAD PROVISION. This chapter confirms the findings of many studies that income is a strong determinant of vehicle ownership at both the national and the city level and that motor vehicle ownership increases at about the same rate as income at both levels.

A survey conducted on a number of cities worldwide 6 tells us that the number of passenger cars per thousand population (as of ) is the lowest in developing cities of Asia, while motorcycle per thousand population enjoys the highest average values in the world ().When we use road supply, instead of population as denominator, the number of passenger cars per road kilometer.

The authors survey past trends in vehicle ownership and road network expansion to analyze determinants of their growth at the national and urban level. Surprisingly, they find that: Nationally, income is a major determinant of both vehicle ownership and road length.

Nationally, paved road length and vehicle ownership has been increasing about as fast as income, while total road length is. Inhabitants of cities in developing countries face greater risks from particulates and lead than many developed-country residents because the lead content of gasoline is usually considerably higher in the former countries (e.g., Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, and India) than in the latter (e.g., the United States or Italy) (Birk and Zegras, ).

This means country motor vehicle fleets grow in proportion to country incomes. More than half the world's annual increase in motor vehicles is likely to occur in high-income countries until (assuming GNP growth of 3 percent in high-income countries, 5 percent in low- and middle-income countries).

This means country motor vehicle fleets grow in proportion to country incomes. More than half the world`s annual increase in motor vehicles is likely to occur in high-income countries until (assuming GNP growth of 3 percent in high-income countries, 5 percent in low- and middle-income countries).This overview is part of a five-report series on transportation in developing countries and draws on the four other reports on specific cities and countries.

The case studies were researched and co-authored with experts from Chile, China, India, and South Africa, and estimated high and low projections of transportation emissions in   The World Bank () emphasizes the looming problem of traffic congestion for cities in developing countries, and suggests that it is likely to worsen as most developing countries presently have about cars per people, compared with over cars per peo- ple in developed countries.

1 This paper develops a model incorpo- rating.